日本
明治維新 Meiji Modernization (1868年)
明治憲法 Meiji Constitution (1889年)
英日同盟 Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902年)
日俄戰爭 The Russo-Japanese War (1904-05年)
「青鞜社」成立 The establishment of Bluestocking Society (Seitousha) (1911年)
大正政變 Taisho era (1912-1913年)
日本參加第一次世界大戰 Entry into the First World War (1914年)
向中國提出《廿一條款》 Twenty-One Demands to China (1915年)
米騷動  The Rice Riot (1918年)
實行政黨政治 Implementation of party politics (191832年)
巴黎和會  Paris Peace Conference (1919年)
華盛頓會議 The Washington Conference (1921-22年)
軍國主義崛起  Rise of militarism (1926-37年)
發表「田中奏摺」 Proposition of the Tanaka Memorial (1927年)
滿洲國的成立 The setting up of Manzhouguo  (1932年)
五‧一五事件 The May 15th Incident (1932年)
第二次中日戰爭 The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45年)
美國進佔日本 Japan under the occupation of the US (1945-52年)
舊金山和約 San Francisco Peace Treaty (1951年)
長崎國旗事件 Nagasaki National Flag Incident (1958)
 
明治維新 Meiji Modernization (1868年)

明治政府提出了「富國強兵」、「殖產興業」及「文明開化」三大口號,作為改革的目標,而改革分為政治、經濟、社會、文化各個方面,項目包括立憲制度的確立、資本主義的發展及現代社會和文化的開展。

The Meiji government advocated three major slogans, namely 'Rich country, Strong army', 'Colonization and Industry' and 'Civilization and Enlightenment', as the objectives of the reforms. Besides, there were three main aspects of the reforms: (1) the establishment of a constitutional system; (2) the development of capitalism; and (3) the cultivation of a modern society and culture.

明治憲法 Meiji Constitution (1889年)

在1889年明治時期,日本採用歐洲的代議政制,在憲法當中,天皇享有最高權力,可以決定一切重要政務,還可隨時解散國會。

During the Meiji period in 1889, Japan decided to implement the European representation system. Under the system, the emperor enjoyed supreme power in decisions on all important matters, even to dissolve the Diet.

英日同盟 Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902年)

中國在1900年發生義和團事件,清政府向列強宣戰,日本亦有派軍攻入北京,俄國在此時乘機佔領滿州,此舉對日本在朝鮮半島的利益構成威脅,為了阻止俄國勢力的擴張,日本便於1902年與英國結成同盟。

In 1900, China was troubled by the Boxer Uprising. The Qing government declared war on the Western powers. Japan also sent troops to attack Beijing. Russia took this opportunity to seize Northeast China (Manchuria), threatening the interests of Japan on the Korean Peninsula. In order to deter Russian ambition, Japan formed an alliance with Britain in 1902.

日俄戰爭 The Russo-Japanese War (190405年)

由於俄國想佔領滿洲及朝鮮,日本遂向俄國開戰。日軍在戰事中擊敗俄軍,最後在美國總統羅斯福的調解下,於1905年簽訂《樸資茅斯條約》 (Treaty of Portsmouth)。在現代史上,這是亞洲國家首次擊敗歐洲強國,日本在戰後亦躍升為世界強國。

Due to the aggression of Russia on Manchuria and Korea, Japan declared war on Russia, which was finally defeated. With the mediation of US President Roosevelt, the two signed the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905. In modern history, it was the first time for an Asian country to defeat a European power. Japan then became a world power after the war.

「青鞜社」成立 The establishment of Bluestocking Society (Seitousha) (1911年)

1911年明治末年,一群婦女運動家組織了「青鞜社」,發行《青鞜雜誌》,宣揚解放婦女的思想,並致力為女性爭取更多的權益。

During the late Meiji era in 1911, a party of women organized the Bluestocking Society (Seitousha) and issued the magazine Bluestocking (Seito), to spread the idea of women's liberation.

大正政變 Taisho era (19121913年)

1912年,明治天皇去世,大正天皇繼位,由於當時首相反對軍部擴張軍備的要求,故陸軍大臣辭職。由於內閣必須擁有軍隊才可成立,故首相被逼辭職。軍閥代表桂太郎接任,組織新內閣。桂太郎上任後,掀起一連串反對軍部干預政治的示威,桂太郎終在1913年抵不住洪流而辭職,史稱「大正政變」。這場政變是日本政治的轉捩點,事件顯示首相及內閣的選任,必須得到人民的支持。

In 1912, the Meiji Emperor passed away, Taisho Emperor ascended the throne. The prime minister at the time opposed the military ministry's request for an increase in army spending. In protest, the army minister resigned. As a new cabinet could not be formed without the army, the prime minister was forced to resign. Katsura Taro, who was a representative of the warlords, was appointed as prime minister. Katsura aroused a series of protests against the warlords' involvement in political affairs. Being unable to pacify the mass discontent, Katsura resigned in 1913. The incident was known as the Taisho Political Crisis, which marked a turning point in Japanese politics, and showed the importance for the prime minister and cabinet to secure popular support.

日本參加第一次世界大戰 Entry into the First World War (1914年)

日本於1905年打敗俄國後,其國際地位大大提高,由於對中國的領土虎視眈眈,於是日本參加了第一次世界大戰及戰後的會議,此舉進一步 鞏固了它的世界強國地位。

After defeating Russia in 1905, Japanese international status greatly increased. Due to her aggression in China, Japan entered into the First World War and participated in post-war conferences, which further consolidated her world power status.

向中國提出《廿一條款》 Twenty-One Demands to China (1915年)

日本於1915年向袁世凱提出苛刻的《廿一條款》,條款內容包括中國須承認日本在山東的權益、要求中國聘用其政治及軍事顧問,以及組成中日聯合警察隊。英美兩國隨即向日本提出抗議,日本於是修改了某些條款,但由於兩國已無意進一步阻止日本,因此袁世凱代表中國接受大部分條款。

Japan proposed the Twenty-One Demands to Yuan Shikai in 1951. The terms stated that China must admit to give Shandong to Japan, employ its political and military consultants and form a joint police force. The US and Britain instantly protested against such agreement, Japan thus modified some of the terms. However, as both countries were no longer intended to stop Japan's aggression, Yuan Shikai accepted most of the terms on behalf of China.

米騷動  The Rice Riot (1918年)

1918年,日本因米荒而發生了米騷動,而政府有利財閥的經濟政策亦引起大眾的不滿,激發起各階層起來抗議米價上升,雖然騷動最後被政府成功鎮壓,但這次事件顯示了人民的力量,為被統治階級帶來勇氣和希望。

In 1918, a rice riot broke out all over Japan due to the shortage of rice. The government's economic policies that favoured big financial groups, zaibatsu, also aroused discontent in the general public. All classes of Japan, therefore, rose up to protest against the increase in the price of rice. Although the riot was eventually suppressed by the government, it nevertheless illustrated the power of public sentiment. This brought forth courage and hope to the ruled class.

實行政黨政治 Implementation of party politics (1918-32年)

1928年,日本依普通選舉法舉行第一次總選舉,但日本政黨在獲得政治權力後,往往因維護自己的利益而互相鬥爭,他們貪污舞弊,又與財閥勾結,根本沒有解決當時的社會及經濟問題。政黨政治的軟弱,為日本軍國主義的崛起提供了有利條件。

In 1928, Japan held the first election according to the General Election Law. However, having gained political power, parties competed with each other for their own interest. They bribed and connected with the zaibatsu, without concerns on the social and economic problems. The weakness of party politics paved the path for the rise of militarism in Japan.

巴黎和會  Paris Peace Conference (1919年)

在會議上,日本要求列強把德國在山東和在北太平洋的權益轉交,由於英、法、美與日本締結密約,故此它們在會議上縱使遭中國反對,仍支持日本的要求。事件反映日本成為國際社會上受尊重的成員國。

At the conference, Japan demanded the transfer of German rights in Shandong and in the North Pacific to her. Since Britain, France, and the United States had made secret treaties with Japan during the war, they supported the claims of Japan at the conference despite China's protests. The Paris Peace Conference confirmed Japanese status as a world power.

華盛頓會議 The Washington Conference (192122年)

日本崛起為世界強國,令美國及歐洲列強大為震驚,為了免受威脅,美國遂於1921 年邀請其他8國出席華盛頓召開的會議,其後簽訂了《四國公約》、《五國公約》及《九國公約》,目的是停止海軍軍備競賽、穩定東亞及太平洋的新秩序,以及避免國際間的衡突。

The rising power of Japan alarmed the United States and the European powers. In order not to be threatened, the United States invited 8 countries to attend a conference in Washington in 1921, and later signed the 'Four-Power Pact', 'Five-Power Pact' and 'Nine-Power Pact'. The main objectives of these were to stop the naval race and to maintain a new order in East Asia and in the Pacific region, so as to avoid international conflicts.

軍國主義崛起  Rise of militarism (192637年)

日本的政黨政治在1930年代初崩潰,當時國內仍然沿用明治憲法、經濟衰退、人民極端民族主義抬頭及人民對光榮與榮譽追求,加上日本希望晉身成為世界列強,這種種因素促使軍人抬頭和專政,以武力兼併他國的思想迅速蔓延。

Party politics in Japan collapsed in the early 1930s. Factors such as the enforcement of Meiji Constitution, economic recession, rise of extreme nationalism, search for glory and prestige, as well as Japanese desire to rise as a world power, all contribute to the rise of a military dictatorship. The idea of using force to annex other countries swiftly gained popularity.

發表「田中奏摺」 Proposition of the Tanaka Memorial (1927年)

1927年,首相田中義一向天皇呈遞「奏摺」,提出發動侵略的計劃;他的計劃是先征服中國,然後把中國作為基地,再征服世界。

In 1927, Japanese Prime Minister Giichi Tanaka proposed the Tanaka Memorial to the Emperor, suggesting to set forth Japan's plans for foreign conquest. The plan was to first conquer China, then the rest of the world with China as the base.

滿洲國的成立 The setting up of Manzhouguo (1932年)

為了阻止蘇聯進佔滿洲,日本最終於1939年9月18日入侵滿洲,這就是「滿洲事件」(又稱「九一八事件」)。日本在滿洲扶植一個傀儡政權,在1932年成立「滿洲國」。

In order to stop Russian aggression on Manchuria, Japan invaded Manchuria on 18 September 1939. This was called the Manchurian Crisis (also called the '918 Incident')。Japan also cultivated a puppet authority in Manchuria and set up the Manzhouguo in 1932.

五‧一五事件 The May 15th Incident (1932年)

1932年5 月15日,日本首相犬養穀被射殺,史稱「五‧一五事件」。這事件由極端民族主義急進派及陸軍士官學校的學生所策動,他們企圖藉此事件改造國家。

On 15 May 1932, the Japanese Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi was shot to death, known as the may 15th Incident. This was planned by students of the army non-commissioned school and those in the radical faction of extreme nationalism. They attempted to transform their country by such an incident.

第二次中日戰爭 The Second Sino-Japanese War (193745年)

1937年7月7日,「盧溝橋事變」爆發,日軍向中國展開全面進攻,國民黨及共產黨兩軍合作,利用游擊戰術對抗日軍。1945年,日本被投下兩枚原子彈,戰敗投降。

The Lugouqiao Incident broke out on the 7th July 1937. Japanese troops started to attack China. The GMD and CPC cooperated to fight against the Japanese by Guerilla. In 1945, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, which was finally defeated and surrendered.

美國進佔日本 Japan under the occupation of the US (194552年)

由1945至1952年,日本被美國佔領,麥克阿瑟元帥以盟軍最高司令官身分進駐日本,在東京設置盟軍總司令部,以對日理事會作為諮詢機關,另於美國華盛頓成立遠東委員會,決定對日本的政策,然後通過美國政府向盟軍總司令部傳達。

From 1945 to 1952, Japan was ruled under the occupation of the US. Chief General Douglas McArthur marched into Japan and established the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Tokyo which served as a consultation body for the Japanese state council. The joint forces also set up the Far Eastern Commission in Washington to formulate their policies on Japan and to convey their decisions through the US government to the Supreme Commander.

舊金山和約 San Francisco Peace Treaty (1951年)

1951年,日本與美國及47個其他國家簽訂《舊金山和約》(San Francisco Peace Treaty),和約結束了美國在日本的佔領,並恢復了日本的獨立。

In 1951, Japan signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty with the US and forty-seven nations. The peace treaty ended the US occupation and restored independence to Japan.

長崎國旗事件 Nagasaki National Flag Incident (1958)

(1958年)事件在1958年5月發生。位於日本長崎的一間百貨公司舉行郵票展覽,期間日本一名右翼青年將會場內的中國國旗扯下,當時的日本政府並沒有加以解釋,但中國方面則認為是極大的侮辱,因而廢棄了中日之間的貿易協定。

The incident took place in May 1958 in a department store where an exhibition of stamps was held. In the exhibition, a Japanese youngster of the right wing pulled down the Chinese national flag hanging in the centre of the exhibition hall. The government did not utter a word to explain the incident to China, who thought it was a great humiliation. As a result, China ended the Sino-Japanese trade agreement.

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