明治維新 Meiji Modernization (1868年)
明治憲法 Meiji Constitution (1889年)
英日同盟 Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902年)
日俄戰爭 The Russo-Japanese War (1904-05年)
「青鞜社」成立 The establishment of Bluestocking Society (Seitousha) (1911年)
大正政變 Taisho era (1912-1913年)
日本參加第一次世界大戰 Entry into the First World War (1914年)
向中國提出《廿一條款》 Twenty-One Demands to China (1915年)
米騷動  The Rice Riot (1918年)
實行政黨政治 Implementation of party politics (191832年)
巴黎和會  Paris Peace Conference (1919年)
華盛頓會議 The Washington Conference (1921-22年)
軍國主義崛起  Rise of militarism (1926-37年)
發表「田中奏摺」 Proposition of the Tanaka Memorial (1927年)
滿洲國的成立 The setting up of Manzhouguo  (1932年)
五‧一五事件 The May 15th Incident (1932年)
第二次中日戰爭 The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45年)
美國進佔日本 Japan under the occupation of the US (1945-52年)
舊金山和約 San Francisco Peace Treaty (1951年)
長崎國旗事件 Nagasaki National Flag Incident (1958)
明治維新 Meiji Modernization (1868年)


The Meiji government advocated three major slogans, namely 'Rich country, Strong army', 'Colonization and Industry' and 'Civilization and Enlightenment', as the objectives of the reforms. Besides, there were three main aspects of the reforms: (1) the establishment of a constitutional system; (2) the development of capitalism; and (3) the cultivation of a modern society and culture.

明治憲法 Meiji Constitution (1889年)


During the Meiji period in 1889, Japan decided to implement the European representation system. Under the system, the emperor enjoyed supreme power in decisions on all important matters, even to dissolve the Diet.

英日同盟 Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902年)


In 1900, China was troubled by the Boxer Uprising. The Qing government declared war on the Western powers. Japan also sent troops to attack Beijing. Russia took this opportunity to seize Northeast China (Manchuria), threatening the interests of Japan on the Korean Peninsula. In order to deter Russian ambition, Japan formed an alliance with Britain in 1902.

日俄戰爭 The Russo-Japanese War (190405年)

由於俄國想佔領滿洲及朝鮮,日本遂向俄國開戰。日軍在戰事中擊敗俄軍,最後在美國總統羅斯福的調解下,於1905年簽訂《樸資茅斯條約》 (Treaty of Portsmouth)。在現代史上,這是亞洲國家首次擊敗歐洲強國,日本在戰後亦躍升為世界強國。

Due to the aggression of Russia on Manchuria and Korea, Japan declared war on Russia, which was finally defeated. With the mediation of US President Roosevelt, the two signed the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905. In modern history, it was the first time for an Asian country to defeat a European power. Japan then became a world power after the war.

「青鞜社」成立 The establishment of Bluestocking Society (Seitousha) (1911年)


During the late Meiji era in 1911, a party of women organized the Bluestocking Society (Seitousha) and issued the magazine Bluestocking (Seito), to spread the idea of women's liberation.

大正政變 Taisho era (19121913年)


In 1912, the Meiji Emperor passed away, Taisho Emperor ascended the throne. The prime minister at the time opposed the military ministry's request for an increase in army spending. In protest, the army minister resigned. As a new cabinet could not be formed without the army, the prime minister was forced to resign. Katsura Taro, who was a representative of the warlords, was appointed as prime minister. Katsura aroused a series of protests against the warlords' involvement in political affairs. Being unable to pacify the mass discontent, Katsura resigned in 1913. The incident was known as the Taisho Political Crisis, which marked a turning point in Japanese politics, and showed the importance for the prime minister and cabinet to secure popular support.

日本參加第一次世界大戰 Entry into the First World War (1914年)

日本於1905年打敗俄國後,其國際地位大大提高,由於對中國的領土虎視眈眈,於是日本參加了第一次世界大戰及戰後的會議,此舉進一步 鞏固了它的世界強國地位。

After defeating Russia in 1905, Japanese international status greatly increased. Due to her aggression in China, Japan entered into the First World War and participated in post-war conferences, which further consolidated her world power status.

向中國提出《廿一條款》 Twenty-One Demands to China (1915年)


Japan proposed the Twenty-One Demands to Yuan Shikai in 1951. The terms stated that China must admit to give Shandong to Japan, employ its political and military consultants and form a joint police force. The US and Britain instantly protested against such agreement, Japan thus modified some of the terms. However, as both countries were no longer intended to stop Japan's aggression, Yuan Shikai accepted most of the terms on behalf of China.

米騷動  The Rice Riot (1918年)


In 1918, a rice riot broke out all over Japan due to the shortage of rice. The government's economic policies that favoured big financial groups, zaibatsu, also aroused discontent in the general public. All classes of Japan, therefore, rose up to protest against the increase in the price of rice. Although the riot was eventually suppressed by the government, it nevertheless illustrated the power of public sentiment. This brought forth courage and hope to the ruled class.

實行政黨政治 Implementation of party politics (1918-32年)


In 1928, Japan held the first election according to the General Election Law. However, having gained political power, parties competed with each other for their own interest. They bribed and connected with the zaibatsu, without concerns on the social and economic problems. The weakness of party politics paved the path for the rise of militarism in Japan.

巴黎和會  Paris Peace Conference (1919年)


At the conference, Japan demanded the transfer of German rights in Shandong and in the North Pacific to her. Since Britain, France, and the United States had made secret treaties with Japan during the war, they supported the claims of Japan at the conference despite China's protests. The Paris Peace Conference confirmed Japanese status as a world power.

華盛頓會議 The Washington Conference (192122年)

日本崛起為世界強國,令美國及歐洲列強大為震驚,為了免受威脅,美國遂於1921 年邀請其他8國出席華盛頓召開的會議,其後簽訂了《四國公約》、《五國公約》及《九國公約》,目的是停止海軍軍備競賽、穩定東亞及太平洋的新秩序,以及避免國際間的衡突。

The rising power of Japan alarmed the United States and the European powers. In order not to be threatened, the United States invited 8 countries to attend a conference in Washington in 1921, and later signed the 'Four-Power Pact', 'Five-Power Pact' and 'Nine-Power Pact'. The main objectives of these were to stop the naval race and to maintain a new order in East Asia and in the Pacific region, so as to avoid international conflicts.

軍國主義崛起  Rise of militarism (192637年)


Party politics in Japan collapsed in the early 1930s. Factors such as the enforcement of Meiji Constitution, economic recession, rise of extreme nationalism, search for glory and prestige, as well as Japanese desire to rise as a world power, all contribute to the rise of a military dictatorship. The idea of using force to annex other countries swiftly gained popularity.

發表「田中奏摺」 Proposition of the Tanaka Memorial (1927年)


In 1927, Japanese Prime Minister Giichi Tanaka proposed the Tanaka Memorial to the Emperor, suggesting to set forth Japan's plans for foreign conquest. The plan was to first conquer China, then the rest of the world with China as the base.

滿洲國的成立 The setting up of Manzhouguo (1932年)


In order to stop Russian aggression on Manchuria, Japan invaded Manchuria on 18 September 1939. This was called the Manchurian Crisis (also called the '918 Incident')。Japan also cultivated a puppet authority in Manchuria and set up the Manzhouguo in 1932.

五‧一五事件 The May 15th Incident (1932年)

1932年5 月15日,日本首相犬養穀被射殺,史稱「五‧一五事件」。這事件由極端民族主義急進派及陸軍士官學校的學生所策動,他們企圖藉此事件改造國家。

On 15 May 1932, the Japanese Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi was shot to death, known as the may 15th Incident. This was planned by students of the army non-commissioned school and those in the radical faction of extreme nationalism. They attempted to transform their country by such an incident.

第二次中日戰爭 The Second Sino-Japanese War (193745年)


The Lugouqiao Incident broke out on the 7th July 1937. Japanese troops started to attack China. The GMD and CPC cooperated to fight against the Japanese by Guerilla. In 1945, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, which was finally defeated and surrendered.

美國進佔日本 Japan under the occupation of the US (194552年)


From 1945 to 1952, Japan was ruled under the occupation of the US. Chief General Douglas McArthur marched into Japan and established the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in Tokyo which served as a consultation body for the Japanese state council. The joint forces also set up the Far Eastern Commission in Washington to formulate their policies on Japan and to convey their decisions through the US government to the Supreme Commander.

舊金山和約 San Francisco Peace Treaty (1951年)

1951年,日本與美國及47個其他國家簽訂《舊金山和約》(San Francisco Peace Treaty),和約結束了美國在日本的佔領,並恢復了日本的獨立。

In 1951, Japan signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty with the US and forty-seven nations. The peace treaty ended the US occupation and restored independence to Japan.

長崎國旗事件 Nagasaki National Flag Incident (1958)


The incident took place in May 1958 in a department store where an exhibition of stamps was held. In the exhibition, a Japanese youngster of the right wing pulled down the Chinese national flag hanging in the centre of the exhibition hall. The government did not utter a word to explain the incident to China, who thought it was a great humiliation. As a result, China ended the Sino-Japanese trade agreement.

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